Ship quieting technology
Information about technologies that have been proven to reduce underwater noise in ships and boats, or that warrant testing to see if they do. The emphasis here should be on practical solutions that make economic sense to boat owners.
Thanks to Brandon Southall of NOAA for coordinating the conferences on this subject and for distilling much of these data and resources! As I wrote to him, "It would be *great* if there were some case studies that include cost/benefit analysis of particular quieting technologies (including practical manufacturer-model-number-type specifics)." Let's try to focus on such information here. Special thanks to Todd Shuster of Gato Verde Sailing Adventures for providing a list of his favorite potential quieting technologies.
- Endangered southern resident killer whales use sound for communication and foraging
- Ships and boats dominate the noise budget within killer whale critical habitat
- It is relatively feasible to mitigate the risk of acoustic impacts (compared with risks due to salmon depletion and persistent pollutants)
- Recreational retrofits are possible
- Commercial whale watching vessels could be quieted
- WA State ferries are being replaced
- Noise from new BC ferries is drawing complaints
- Commercial ships transit critical habitat ~20 times/day
- Recent research shows that southern residents compensate for increased (vessel-associated) noise by raising their S1 source level (Killer whales increase their call amplitude in response to vessel noise, Holt et al, 2009)
International workshops and agreements
- Communications between the U.S. and the International Maritime Organization's Marine Environment Protection Committee Issue statement (December, 2007) | Request to add to agenda (June, 2008)
- Report from Hamburg Workshop (April 21-24, 2008) "International Workshop on Shipping Noise and Marine Mammals"
- International Symposia on "Potential Application of Vessel-Quieting Technology on Large Commercial Vessels"
Ships (large vessels, generally >>65')
- Blair Kipple's studies of vessel noise in Glacier Bay, AK (search for Kipple pubs)
- Ship noise underwater in Haro Strait (Veirs and Veirs, 2006, ASA presentation; PPT | PPT zip (w/sound files)
- Cost/benefit ideas for commercial ships (Wittekind, 2007, from 2007 Symposium site)
- Veth Z-drive (mentions sound level, but no measurements provided)
Boats (small vessels, <65')
Sound emitted by particular hulls and propulsion systems:
- Sound Exposure of Southern Resident Killer Whales (Rachael Griffin and David Bain, 2006)
- Whale watch noise in Haro Strait (Hildebrand et al., 2006)
- Sounds from whale watching vessels (Tim Hunt; fall, 2007) "Investigating high frequency underwater boat noise and potential masking of killer whale echolocation clicks"
- The Naiad Explorer (17m, 48person; Mackay Whale Watching) spectrum levels and source level vs speed graph (archived version)
Potential mitigation technologies:
- "Thrustor" ducted propeller systems are being tested and patented by Marine Propulsion Technologies in CA (no noise reduction results as of 10/2008).
Existing prototypes fit: Mercury Bravo II Konrad stern drive (240-260 series) Evinrude 150 hp to 250 hp, maybe 120 hp Honda 90
Evinrudes generally run relatively smaller propellers in the 150-250 hp class, which is compatible with the Thrustor and the necessary propeller clearances. Bravo II and Konrad usually are heavier vessels with bigger hp and a need for maximum prop surface for max performance. The Thrustor for these boats is 19.5" inside diameter (I.D.). One inch to 1.5" clearance is necessary to prevent pressurizing the nozzle system and adding unnecessary prop torque. It is recommended to use 16.5-17.5" diameter props.
- Durajet propless pump jet propulsion system (Florida)| re-seller (no noise reduction results as of 10/2008).
Compatible engines: Evinrude E-Tec Tiller 40, Remote 40, 50, and 60HP Johnson Commercial Tiller 20, 30, 35, 55, Remote 60 and 70HP Mercury Tiller and Remote 2-stroke and 4-stroke 40 Tohatsu/Nissan 2 and 4-stroke 25 and 30HP remote and tiller
- JetPac Outboard Jet Propulsion System (Thanks to Rob and Erin for the tip on this technology!)
- Arneson Surface Drives (with surface piercing propellers)
Notes on other technologies to consider
- Power pods (attach to trim tabs or anti-cavitation plates)
Minn Kota -- trimtroll | Riptide (transom-mounted) | RipTide ST (bow-mounted) Marine Tech navigator Motor Guide
- Electric outboards:
- Kort nozzles (often used on tugs and research vessels)
- Vetus in-line hybrid (~4hp? Probably too small for most whale watch vessels, but good for small sailboats; Fisheries Supply may carry)
- Berkeley jet?
- Bigger systems for inboard or I/O repower or new builds, 20-50' displacement hulls:
Solid Nav e-Power E-pods Whisper Prop (Germany)
- Even bigger systems
Ossa Powerlite Siemens diesel-electric marine hybrid for big boats 125hp and up Glacier Bay? Fisher-Panda (Europe) NGC/Thusa (non-responsive)
Thought from Todd: "Theoretically a 330VDC AC propulsion system that could be very powerful, efficient, waterproof and cool (brushless PM AC motor) could be done with off the shelf components for under $10K...I'm just not willing to carry that voltage aboard at this time and finding a generator to charge and regulate that pack would be a very custom creation. It would probably be easiest to power a system like this with a standard 220AC generator and a smart charging system that could boost the voltage."
- Sound-absorbing paint
- Misc: exhaust noise reduction, sound damping panels